|Title||The Last Guardian,
Master Mage of Karazhan,
(the) Old Man
|Character class||Archmage, Guardian
|Affiliation(s)||Order of Tirisfal|
|Occupation||Guardian of Tirisfal|
|Location||Unknown (lore), Various Locations|
|Status||Unknown (took his place "amongst the legends of the past")|
Nielas Aran (father)
|Companion(s)||Anduin Lothar, Llane Wrynn|
Magus or Magna Medivh was the last Guardian of Tirisfal, an ancient line of protectors bestowed with great powers to do battle with the agents of the Burning Legion. He was corrupted even before birth, and possessed by the spirit of the demonlord Sargeras who used Medivh in his plan to conquer Azeroth. Medivh contacted the orcish warlock, Gul'dan, and together they opened the Dark Portal, which allowed the Burning Legion to begin its destruction of Azeroth. He was slain shortly after by a party led by one of his friends, Lothar.
Shortly before the beginning of the Third War, Medivh returned as a mysterious prophet, manipulating events in order to arrange the formation of a last-ditch alliance between the mortal races on Kalimdor, guiding them to victory at the Battle of Mount Hyjal. The prophet's name means "keeper of secrets" in Thalassian. He possessed Atiesh, Greatstaff of the Guardian which is currently wielded by his apprentice, Khadgar.
- 1 Biography
- 2 Locations
- 3 Death
- 4 Atiesh
- 5 In the RPG
- 6 Quotes
- 7 Trivia
- 8 Alternate timelines
- 9 Speculation
- 10 Gallery
- 11 Videos
- 12 See also
- 13 References
- 14 External links
Birth and childhood
|This article or section contains information that is out-of-date.
Medivh's mother, Aegwynn, served as the Guardian of Tirisfal before him. Eight centuries before the coming of the orcs, she fought and seemingly defeated Sargeras. This was according to the demon lord's plan, as he used the opportunity to transfer his essence into her body, where he would lay in wait.
Forty-five years before the coming of the orcs, Aegwynn desired to give birth to a child to whom she could pass on her powers, against the wishes of the Order of Tirisfal. She seduced the court conjurer of the Kingdom of Stormwind, Nielas Aran, who was a powerful sorcerer of the Order in his own right, only returning later to leave the child in his care. Naming the boy Medivh, which means "keeper of secrets" in the high elven tongue, Aegwynn was unaware that Sargeras had possessed the defenseless child while it was still in her womb. The boy, and Sargeras, were given all of Aegwynn's powers, which were to lay dormant until he reached adulthood.
Medivh had a happy childhood, primarily spent with friends Prince Llane Wrynn and Anduin Lothar. One day, while out on the road in Stranglethorn Vale, Medivh and his friends were ambushed by three jungle trolls. None were hurt badly, however, Medivh fainted after casting several spells. He would succumb to a coma on the eve of his fourteenth birthday, awaking in the middle of the night from evil dreams, where he pictured figures giving chase through deep chasms. In a sweat, he stumbled into his father's room, and when his father touched his brow, the power his mother had given him awoke. By the time the force had subsided, his father was dead and Medivh nearly so himself. Spanning over twenty years, (previously set to 6 years) Medivh, in a coma caused by Sargeras, was tended by his friend Lothar, as well as the clerics at Northshire Abbey.
The fallen Guardian
Medivh awoke over twenty years later under a facade of control, and assured the clerics and the court that he was fine. But the dark spirit of Sargeras twisted his thoughts and emotions towards an insidious end. With Medivh's powers growing exponentially daily, he had set out to know everything, and he even consorted with the Legion of the Lower Planes. He began to search for something with which to destroy the humans of Azeroth, who he saw as the only thing standing in his way of true power. He found that on Draenor. Bargaining with the warlock Gul'dan from his chambers in the tower of Karazhan, Medivh promised to furnish Gul'dan with the location of the Tomb of Sargeras if Gul'dan would bring the Horde to Azeroth and destroy the humans. And so, aided on the other side by Gul'dan's Shadow Council, Medivh opened the Dark Portal between Azeroth and Draenor. Aegwynn then appeared to Medivh, trying to reason that this was the wrong path to take, but he heard nothing. They battled, with Medivh emerging the victor and banishing her from his sight. But the battle had drained him, so he attempted to draw power from the very land itself. Aegwynn had survived the battle with Medivh, who promptly set up magical wards to ensure that his mother lived in peace.
Aegwynn wasn't the only one to confront the maverick guardian. Arcanagos, a blue dragon and one of the guardians of magic, paid visit to Karazhan to attempt to sway Medivh from the path he was being led down. Finally the blue resorted to using force, but was overpowered by Medivh and burned from within. Once again Medivh was left drained and left to recover his strength.
At some point, Medivh hosted some traveling merchants who attempted to cheat him by selling him counterfeit artifacts. Medivh cursed them and today they are known as the Dark Riders of Deadwind Pass.
It was shortly after this time that the mages of Dalaran sent Medivh an apprentice. This young apprentice was known as Khadgar, a name which among the dwarves meant Trust. Time passed as "Young Trust" studied under Medivh. He lived within Karazhan with a few others: Medivh studying, Moroes serving as his aide, and Cook the Chef making meals.
Around this time, the war began picking up between the orcs and the humans, as the orcs increasingly struck out of the Black Morass. Medivh was sober about this, even remarking that it was happening as planned. Soon after the Horde's emissary, Garona Halforcen, came to Karazhan. Unbeknownst to anyone Medivh and Garona had a brief affair which later resulted in a child, the mixed race Med'an.
Khadgar would be the first to discover that it was Medivh who has brought the orcs upon the lands of Azeroth. During this time, Khadgar and Garona had an audience with King Llane and Anduin Lothar, where Lothar was convinced of Medivh's corruption. Lothar, one of Medivh's best friends, led a troop of human forces, which included Khadgar and Garona, to deal with the crazed Guardian. During the battle with Medivh, Khadgar—magically aged by Medivh's spellwork—held Lothar's blade to the Guardian's chest, and finally ran it through Medivh's heart. The demon within him awakened at that point, right up until Lothar delivered the mercy stroke, decapitating the Guardian and banishing Sargeras into the Nether.
At the height of his powers, Medivh worked his magics and struggled with Sargeras in his tower of Karazhan. His powers were such that the trauma of his death laid a curse on his once wondrous tower and the surrounding area that became Deadwind Pass. The tower has become such a dangerous and accursed place, that those that venture in never return (Violet Eye chain).
Aegwynn spent years building up the power to bring him back to life and she was successful.
Medivh, described as trespasser, briefly returned to Karazhan. The trespasser, muttering some words, entered Karazhan through the main entrance. Once there he found a crushed astrolabe and when he picked it up he began to see memories of the past and in particular another man just like the trespasser holding the same astrolabe. He interacted with a past version of Khadgar (though it was a future version of Medivh from Khadgar's perspective). He explained to his erstwhile apprentice that with his burial in the past by Khadgar and his current return to life, the good (the Guardian) and the evil (Sargeras) battling within him had been destroyed, and that he was, perhaps for the first time, only Medivh. He then collected the energies and visions from Karazhan to be prepared for the next battle against the Burning Legion, indicating the Third War.
Reign of Chaos
This section concerns content exclusive to Warcraft III.
Long after the Second War, a strange prophet appeared to various denizens of Azeroth. He appeared to deliver a warning of a looming apocalyptic threat. The young warchief of the Horde — Thrall, son of Durotan — had a dream where the orcs and humans were fighting against each other while infernals rained from the sky. He awakened and The Prophet told him it was a vision, that he must go to the ancient lands of Kalimdor if he wished to save his people, Thrall sensed the truth of his words and set sail to Kalimdor in the far west beyond the sea. He has the ability to turn into a large black raven.
The Horde went to Kalimdor, however, convincing the humans was found to be more difficult. King Terenas of Lordaeron and Antonidas of Dalaran both dismissed The Prophet as a madman. The king's son, Prince Arthas, refused to leave his beleaguered people. Only the young daughter of Daelin Proudmoore, and apprentice of Antonidas, Jaina, sensed that he was perhaps right. When he appeared to her after the destruction of Stratholme, she heeded his warning and prepared to leave for the west. She set sail with a group of her people just as the invasion began. Thrall arrived to Kalimdor looking for his destiny, and his new acquaintance Cairne Bloodhoof — chieftain of the Bloodhoof tribe — suggested him to go to the Oracle. Thrall fought his way through the Human Expedition until he arrived at the Oracle, but he found Jaina and some humans. As they prepared to battle each other, the prophet appeared. He told them that they must cease hostilities if they ever hoped to defeat the Burning Legion and escape its corruption. They reluctantly agreed.
Medivh talking to King Terenas.
Finally, The Prophet revealed his identity when the time came to rally the forces. Appearing in a dream to Thrall, the night elf Malfurion Stormrage, and Jaina, The Prophet told them that they must form an alliance to battle the common enemy. He told them that he was, in fact, Medivh, the Last Guardian of Tirisfal, and that it was his doing that brought the orcs, and, in turn, the Burning Legion, to Azeroth. Jaina, Thrall, and Malfurion became convinced that victory could only be achieved through an alliance, and they rallied together to defend the World Tree, Nordrassil. In the final hour, nature's spirits, called into action by the Horn of Cenarius' clarion call, swarmed around Archimonde, and destroyed the demon once and for all.
Confident that the world was safe for now, and that he had repaid a fraction of debt for his terrible sins, Medivh vanished, to take his place "amongst the legends of the past." His actions ensured Azeroth's survival and he found some redemption for his previous crimes.
After the events of the Battle of Mount Hyjal he went to places unknown; he may have met the end of his wandering on Azeroth and somehow departing the material plane, or he may have simply retired somewhere distant. More recently, a black raven can be seen endlessly circling Karazhan, leading some to suggest that the Last Guardian may linger on in some form. A Black Raven also appears on the loading screen when entering Karazhan. Nonetheless, his fate remains unknown, though it is quite clear from his final comments that he intends to never be heard from or seen again.
Cycle of Hatred
When Jaina found Magna Aegwynn, she was confused, because all the Tirisfalen, including Medivh himself should be dead by now. It is unknown whether he is really dead, or just Jaina thought so.
The Burning Crusade
This section concerns content exclusive to The Burning Crusade.
Although long gone by the time of World of Warcraft, Medivh still makes several appearances in one form or another in two significant instances. Strangely, Medivh's character model, from where his animations are derived, is that of a male night elf as opposed to a human, which accounts for his increased height.
He ends and begins the following quests:
Caverns of Time
His first appearance is within the Caverns of Time: Opening the Dark Portal, the second instance within the caverns opened after Thrall's Escape from Durnholde. It is set in the Black Morass just as Medivh prepares to open the Dark Portal, and the player group must protect him from members of the infinite dragonflight attempting to kill him and stop the opening of the Portal, which would prevent the Horde from crossing into Azeroth. Medivh is also involved in the attunement process for Karazhan. After obtaining the fragments of Khadgar's key from instances in Outland, Khadgar sends you to the Black Morass to speak to Medivh to enchant it so that it will open the locked gates of Karazhan; Medivh will instead give you . However, you must have completed the instance (Medivh must survive to open the Dark Portal) before you can speak to him and gain his key.
He shows up twice more in his old tower of Karazhan in Deadwind Pass which has been abandoned since Medivh's death at the hands of Khadgar and Lothar, shortly before the end of the First War. An "Echo of Medivh" is seen where players play a game of chess against him in the Gamesman's Hall, and an "Image of Medivh" is seen in a flashback on the Master's Terrace fighting off the blue dragon Arcanagos.
- Medivh yells: You've got my attention, dragon. You'll find I'm not as easily scared as the villagers below.
- Arcanagos yells: Your dabbling in the arcane has gone too far, Medivh. You've attracted the attention of powers beyond your understanding. You must leave Karazhan at once!
- Medivh yells: You dare challenge me at my own dwelling? Your arrogance is astounding, even for a dragon.
- Arcanagos yells: A dark power seeks to use you, Medivh! If you stay, dire days will follow. You must hurry, we don't have much time!
- Medivh yells: I do not know what you speak of, dragon... but I will not be bullied by this display of insolence. I'll leave Karazhan when it suits me!
- Arcanagos yells: You leave me no alternative. I will stop you by force if you won't listen to reason.
- Arcanagos glows with a blue aura as Medivh casts a pyroblast that reflects off the dragon. Injured, Medivh stands back to his feet.
- Medivh begins to cast a spell of great power, weaving his own essence into the magic.
- Arcanagos begins to burn.
- Arcanagos yells: What have you done, wizard? This cannot be! I'm burning from... within!
- Arcanagos flies off into the distance aflame.
- Medivh says: He should not have angered me. I must go... recover my strength now...
World of Warcraft: The Comic
In spite of his unknown fate, he left an avatar of himself in Karazhan to give a message of knowledge and power to his son, Med'an, so that Med'an could decide his own fate. The avatar commented himself as being gone from Azeroth.
Thrall: Twilight of the Aspects
While chasing an image of the lost Dragon Aspect Nozdormu in the Caverns of Time, Thrall encountered Medivh in the form of a black raven, who somehow knew that Thrall was from another time and that he was looking for Nozdormu. It's unclear whether that Medivh was from an alternate timeline or the main timeline.
|Location||Level range||Health range|
Medivh's death has been portrayed in at least four different sources.
In Warcraft: Orcs & Humans, the player had to enter his lair and slay him. His lair was filled with summoned and cave beings: Skeletons, scorpions, fire elementals and daemons. Lothar, Khadgar, and Garona are all absent.
Medivh's death was clearly described in The Last Guardian, where it is established that he was slain by the three listed above — with Khadgar wielding the blade that was run through Medivh's heart (and Lothar then decapitating him); this version is supported by various sources.
In the interlude The Last Guardian in the "Eternity's End" campaign in Warcraft III: Reign of Chaos, Medivh is shown in a flashback being killed by 5 human footmen and a captain. Though the captain figure in the scene could be Lothar, Khadgar and Garona are nowhere to be seen. In The Last Guardian it is, however, described that Khadgar and Garona were wearing Stormwind garbs, which would explain why they could be displayed as normal footmen.
Finally in Flashback we see Medivh being stabbed through the heart by Khadgar with Lothar standing just behind.
The idea that there were more involved than just Lothar, Khadgar, and Garona is supported by Shadows & Light ("...a squad of human warriors...") and Horde Player's Guide ("A group of human heroes slowed the invasion by slaying Medivh"). However, both sources also confirm that Lothar, Khadgar, and Garona were involved as well.> In Tides of Darkness it is explained that Lothar was with Garona, Khadgar and a handful of men when they defeated Medivh.
Medivh's death in the Warcraft comic.
The most powerful mages focus their powers into magical staves, and Medivh was no different. His staff, Atiesh, Greatstaff of the Guardian, was possessed by an agent of Sargeras, thus boosting Medivh's already-immeasurable powers. When Medivh was killed, Atiesh was taken to Dalaran, where it was revealed that the spirit within killed anyone who dared try to wield it. It was locked away in a secret and secure vault for nearly three decades following Medivh's death, until Dalaran was destroyed by Archimonde.
This section concerns content exclusive to World of Warcraft.
The staff was shattered into 42 pieces—the 40 splinters of the shaft, the base, and the headpiece. The base found its way into C'Thun's possession in the Temple of Ahn'Qiraj in an unknown way from Brann Bronzebeard (who found it through his exploration of Azeroth), and the headpiece was located by the necromancer-lich Kel'Thuzad, who was responsible for summoning Archimonde in the first place. The 40 splinters of the shaft are in the hands of Kel'Thuzad's lieutenants, spread out across his citadel of Naxxramas in the Eastern Plaguelands. Even if the staff were restored, it would need to be .
The base was retrieved by Garona Halforcen from within the corpse of C'Thun. The staff was purified and restored by Medivh's son, Med'an. Medivh had poured a large amount of power into the base as Med'an's legacy that would only answer to his touch.
In the RPG
Medivh’s soul constantly struggled with that of Sargeras for control of his body and mind. The fight between them was constant, and resulted in Medivh shifting periodically between stretches of calmness and lucidity and bouts of strangely incomprehensible behavior. To outsiders, he often seemed to make abrupt decisions or reverse his position on issues. When the struggle between the two souls became too great for Medivh's body to handle, he sank into a catatonic state and became completely unresponsive. These periods varied greatly in duration and could range from a matter of minutes to months.
When Medivh was in control of his body and mind, he was a friendly and wise individual. He cared deeply for a number of the high-ranking human leaders and put the needs of the kingdom above almost everything else. He had defended Lordaeron from attack many times throughout the years and has built a great reputation as a staunch defender of the land. He was not naturally biased against any of the races, and displayed a fair amount of interest in people who brought to him stories of distant lands or cultures.
However, when Sargeras was in control, Medivh’s personality shifted dramatically. He became sullen and distant, barely acknowledged the presence of close friends, and practically ignored strangers. He was secretive and often traveled to faraway places abruptly. In private, Medivh would not hesitate to do away with annoying visitors by using his spells to kill or incapacitate them. However, he was moderately concerned about his cover being blown with the Lordaeron leadership and would not act out of character in public.
Medivh's tactics were often erratic, depending upon which personality was in control at the time. Nonetheless, the common theme with both personalities was to stay at range and harass enemies with potent spells. He often cast only a few spells and then retreated for a few rounds to strike again later from another direction.
Medivh, The Prophet, chose to remain uninvolved directly in the upcoming war (leading some to suspect he had remained a ghost).
Status as an Eternal
Medivh is classified as an Eternal in the legends chapter of Shadows & Light, but the book is not specific as to how or when he reached that status. The article is mostly concerned with the period in history when he was possessed by Sargeras. This likely means that he was an Eternal only because he was possessed by one. It doesn't seem to be related to the fact he was a guardian, as other guardians are not Eternals, for example Aranda.
Although the article does make a brief reference to his period as the legendary Oracle, it is not likely the reason for his Eternal status. The majority of the article concerned with the period when he had dual personalities where he struggled with Sargeras for control of his body, this includes the role-playing notes and combat section. It explains how others might react to his mood swings and personality changes. His abilities are also a combination of a guardian and Sargeras's abilities.
The book is also pretty clear that no new Eternals have appeared in modern times.
When Khadgar killed Medivh and destroyed the spirit of Sargeras, Medivh's spirit escaped. The spirit of Medivh foresaw the eventual downfall of Lordaeron, and with his mother's help his spirit attained form.
This section concerns content exclusive to Warcraft III.
It should be noted Medivh is no longer a human as he was before referenced by his quote in Warcraft III: "I left my humanity behind long ago. I am something...different now."
- Main article: Quotes of Medivh
Medivh has made many statements, worthy of quotation. However, there is one that is the most memorable; his farewell at the end of the Third War (and Warcraft III), below.
The roots will heal in time... as will the entire world. The sacrifices have been made. Just as the orcs, humans, and night elves discarded their old hatreds and stood united against a common foe, so did Nature herself rise up to banish the Shadow...forever. As for me, I came back to ensure that there would be a future, to teach the world that it no longer needed Guardians. The hope for future generations has always resided in mortal hands. And now that my task is done, I will take my place...amongst the legends of the past.
Hearthstone: Heroes of Warcraft trailer
- "The Kirin Tor will tell you that mastering the magical arts is like learning the rules of a game. Fools. True power is taken by those brave enough to break boundaries. I am Medivh, the Last Guardian. If magic is a game, then it is one I play to win."
Medivh in his Hearthstone: Heroes of Warcraft character trailer.
- can be fished from the Dalaran Fountain.
- Medivh had green eyes just like his mother.
- He was called Med by Anduin Lothar.
- Medivh was born in the year -44. According to Khadgar, he was cursed in the year 3 during the battle in which Medivh died at the age of 47.
- Medivh was responsible for summoning fleshbeasts into the world. He used them in his clandestine experiments in the laboratories of Karazhan.
- He apparently had something to do with the death of the Ghastly Charger.
- According to a Warcraft II map, Medivh's magics created Medivh's Beetle at the time of the Second War.
- Medivh is voiced by Michael Bell in Warcraft III and Cam Clarke in World of Warcraft: The Burning Crusade.
- He is the alternate hero (player character) for the mage class in Hearthstone: Heroes of Warcraft, and the third alternate hero to be revealed. His flavor text reads: "The Guardian of Tirisfal is a force for good. Demonic possession is a manageable condition."
- Purchasing Medivh also unlocks the Medivh card back. The flavor text reads: "He certainly has a thing for crows and ravens."
- In the Goblins vs Gnomes expansion, there is also an epic Mage spell called Echo of Medivh. The flavor text reads: "Medivh's echo haunts Karazhan, eternally cheating at chess and Hearthstone."
- In the League of Explorers adventure, Medivh's locket is located in the Hall of Explorers wing. Brann Bronzebeard says that "The ghosts of Karazhan haunt this locket."
Considering Medivh's appearence before Thrall in Thrall: Twilight of the Aspects, it is possible that instead of seeing a past version of Medivh who had seen Thrall appearing there, that in fact Medivh had dissappeared into the Timeways when he said he was taking his place "amongst the legends of the past". When Thrall appeared in front of Medivh the only significant thing to happen there was his meeting with Medivh, while all other timeways he went to had a past Thrall immediately present (barring the next one he went to in which he died as an infant in a false timeway).
Medivh on the cover of World of Warcraft: Chronicle Volume 1.
- Thrall's Vision
- The Warning
- Jaina's Meeting
- The Prince and the Prophet
- Divergent Courses
- The Last Guardian
- Eternity's End
- Hearthstone: Medivh Trailer
- The Story of the Guardians
- Chronicles of the War in Azeroth - A detailed history of Medivh's childhood and his relationship in regards to Prince Llane.
- Aegwynn and the Dragon Hunt
- The Last Guardian (History of Warcraft)
- Medivh (Warcraft I) - Medivh's stats in the game Warcraft: Orcs & Humans
- ^ Warcraft II manual: A Brief History of the Fall of Azeroth. "Delving into the forbidden arts of Necromancy, Medivh began to unravel the mysteries of life and death."
- ^ http://www.wowcards.info/card/timewalkers/en/7/Medivh-the-Corrupted%7CWoW TCG Card: Medivh the Corrupted
- ^ "Human Campaign: Medivh", Warcraft: Orcs and Humans. Blizzard Entertainment. "The evil warlock Medivh has begun draining the soul of the land itself to increase his dark powers."
- ^ http://www.blizzplanet.com/blog/comments/world_of_warcraft_23
- ^ The Last Guardian, 79.
- ^ Tides of Darkness, 11.
- ^ Infinite Vanquisher: Magna Medivh dies today.
- ^ Warcraft III: Reign of Chaos
- ^ Warcraft II: Tides of Darkness manual, "A Brief History of the Fall of Azeroth".
- ^ The Last Guardian, 102.
- ^ The Last Guardian (History of Warcraft)
- ^ The Last Guardian, chapter 8
- ^ Warcraft: Orcs & Humans manual, years 571 and 577
- ^ World of Warcraft: Chronicle Volume 1, pg. 162
- ^ Cycle of Hatred, 176.
- ^ Dark Riders
- ^ The Last Guardian, 184. "[…]afraid things are going just the way I expected!"
- ^ a b The Dark Portal and the Fall of Stormwind
- ^ The Last Guardian, 301.
- ^ World of Warcraft: The Burning Crusade. Blizzard Entertainment.
- ^ Cycle of Hatred, 71.
- ^ The Last Guardian, prologue & epilogue
- ^ a b "Eternity's End: Eternity's End", Warcraft III. Blizzard Entertainment.
- ^ a b c Shadows & Light, 45.
- ^ World of Warcraft: The Burning Crusade Flash Site: Caverns of Time - Story of Medivh
- ^ Thrall: Twilight of the Aspects
- ^ "Human: Medivh", Warcraft: Orcs & Humans. Blizzard Entertainment.
- ^ World of Warcraft: The Comic, Hard Choices
- ^ World of Warcraft: The Comic, Flashback (only Khadgar's part)
- ^ The Last Guardian, chapter 16
- ^ Horde Player's Guide, 133
- ^ a b Shadows & Light, 44.
- ^ Shadows & Light, 41.
- ^ Horde Player's Guide, 168
- ^ Tides of Darkness, 8-9.
- ^ The Gathering
- ^ Armageddon
- ^ a b Shadows & Light, 47.
- ^ Shadows & Light, 46.
- ^ Shadows & Light, ?.
- ^ Lands of Conflict, 33.
- ^ Lands of Conflict, 34.
- ^ World of Warcraft: The Roleplaying Game, 11
- ^ Sean Copeland on Twitter (2013-12-16)
- ^ Burning Crusade Bestiary
- ^ Mount Journal entry for
- ^ https://twitter.com/playhearthstone/status/609390711180398592
- ^ Rafaam Unleashed dialogue
- ^ Micky Neilson on Twitter
|Medivh||Echo of Medivh||Image of Medivh|
Guardian of Tirisfal
(New Council of Tirisfal)