- "Tirisfal" redirects here. For other uses, see Tirisfal (disambiguation).
|Level: 1 - 20; 110|
Battle Pet Level: 1 - 2
The Undercity (destroyed)
- “Tirisfal... a place of beauty and darkness. A land fraught with regret... and graves.”
- — Zidormi
On the northern coast of Lordaeron lie the eerie Tirisfal Glades (or Tirisfal Glade or simply Tirisfal, pronounced TEER-ihs-fahl) named after the Titan Keeper Tyr, as Tirisfal means "Tyr's Fall" in the vrykul tongue. The lands of the Forsaken, servants of the Banshee Queen Sylvanas Windrunner, the wooded hills are seeped through with the curse of the Lich King's plague. The sky over Tirisfal is eternally gloomy and tinted a blighted green, and the trees and other flora desperately cling to their last shreds of life.
Those who inhabit the area of Tirisfal would feel two conflicting energies emanating from the earth: the remaining spiritual essence of Keeper Tyr, and that of his enemy Zakajz. Some would tap into Tyr's energy; others would become attuned with the C'Thrax's dark aura. Although tainted and melancholy, Tirisfal still very much has its own unique, haunting beauty, particularly in such areas as the stony North Coast, the town of Brill, and the deep atmosphere of the ruined Agamand Mills.
Tirisfal Glades is home not only to the Forsaken but to their enemies as well. The Scarlet Crusade has several outposts here, including the seat of their religious faith, the Scarlet Monastery. The minions of the Scourge are also ever present, tainting the derelict farmsteads and dilapidated mills with their foul presence.
In the aftermath of the Battle for Lordaeron, Tirisfal Glades became contested between the Alliance and the Horde, with the Ruins of Lordaeron becoming heavily plagued and the majority of Tirisfal itself being overrun with Blighted Soldiers risen by Sylvanas who attack anyone on sight.
- 1 History
- 2 Geography
- 3 Notable characters
- 4 Quests
- 5 Events
- 6 Resources
- 7 Battle pets
- 8 Wild creatures
- 9 Achievements
- 10 Warcraft III
- 11 In the RPG
- 12 Notes and trivia
- 13 Gallery
- 14 Videos
- 15 Patch changes
- 16 References
- 17 External links
Rise of humanity
When Loken, the Titanic Watcher left in charge of Ulduar fell to corruption, Tyr and his allies stole the Discs of Norgannon to investigate the extent of Loken's betrayal. Discovering the theft, Loken sent horrific monsters after Tyr's group, but Tyr sacrificed his life to fight the creatures while his comrades escaped with the discs. The C'Thraxxi generals Zakazj and Kith'ix engaged in combat with Tyr, arcane and shadow magic ripping through the glade. The struggle lasted for six days. Ultimately, to protect his friends, Tyr unleashed all of his power, erupting in a crater. Tyr and Zakazj were dead while the wounded Kith'ix fled to the west. In honor of her fallen comrade, Ironaya named the glade surrounding the crater as "Tyr's Fall" which in the vrykul tongue translated to "Tirisfal". She and her followers buried Tyr and his foe where they lay, and they placed Tyr's massive silver hand atop his final resting place as a memorial to his valiant sacrifice. In the end, Tyr's hammer became lost with him somewhere beneath the land now named in his honor. The peaceful vrykul that were accompanying the Keepers wanted to further honor Tyr and decided to settle near the battlefield and protect the Tomb of Tyr. Ironaya and Archaedas honored the vrykul's wish to settle in Tirisfal. Among the vrykul that remained in Tirisfal was Yrgrim the Truthseeker but later left the place.
Over time, the area became a place of legend for the vrykul people in northern Kalimdor. As a result of the Curse of Flesh, the Dragonflayer vrykul began giving birth to deformed children, giving rise to fear. King Ymiron intended to unite all vrykul clans and ordered the malformed infants killed. Some Dragonflayer vrykul couldn't do that and decided to find the legendary land of Tirisfal and give the children to the vrykul living there. In the ages that followed, the children and their offspring continued transforming into beings called humans. As such, humanity first emerged in Tirisfal Glades. The vrykul had formed Tyr's Guard. Knowing they would not live forever, they allowed the humans to join the order.
Tirisfal Glades were the landing place of the Highborne (later high elves) led by Dath'Remar Sunstrider after the night elves exiled them from Kalimdor. Forging inland, the high elves founded a settlement within the tranquil Tirisfal Glades, co-living with the tribes of primitive humans who told them legends about Tyr. Among known elves that were born in Tirisfal is Lorash Sunbeam. After a few years, many of them began to go mad due to shadowy powers. It was theorized that something evil slept beneath that particular part of the world, but the rumors were never proven to be true. The Highborne argued whether they should expel the humans from the land or even conquer them. Dath'Remar did not agree with this because he sensed dark magic. To avoid violence, the Highborne packed up their encampment and moved northward towards another land rich with ley energies, Quel'Thalas.
Over thousands of years, the Tirisfal vrykul died out, but humanity would flourish in the Eastern Kingdoms. Warlord Thoradin set to unite the human tribes, including that of Tirisfal Glades which was the only human tribe powerful enough to end King Thoradin's dream of unity. The humans of the Glades were led by the native warrior Lordain. While Thoradin won the Alteraci by show of strength, the Tirisfal humans would not submit to shows of force like the Alteraci. To win their loyalty, Thoradin needed to appeal to their religious beliefs. Thus Thoradin and his personal guards made a pilgrimage to the region's shrines and sacred groves. At each site, the king performed rituals as was the custom of Lordain and his kin. Thoradin even wore a pendant of the silver hand, an image held sacred by Tirisfal's humans. At the end of the pilgrimage, Thoradin met with Lordain. The king pledged that if the tribe joined him, he would adopt their mystic ways and spread them among the Arathi. To seal his promise, Thoradin ran his palm along Strom'kar's edge and mixed his blood with the earth of Tirisfal. And so it was, Lordain and his people bent the knee to King Thoradin, with the Tirisfal leader becoming Thoradin's general. With the human tribes united, the kingdom of Arathor arose.
During the Troll Wars, Tirisfal Glades were considered a territory of the Amani Empire. When the Troll Wars ended, Thoradin abdicated and spent some time in Tirisfal studying its ruins and becoming obsessed with the humanity's history as well as that of the vrykul. Using the elven enchantments of Strom'kar, he located Tyr's tomb. Thoradin led a retinue of guards and sorcerers there and encountered Tyr's Guard. Thoradin's group forced themselves past them and entered the depths of darkness to which Thoradin heroically succumbed.
By the year -2,700, the area had the most coveted and fertile lands. The Arathi established a stronghold to protect their farmsteads from gnolls, kobolds, and other dangerous wildlife. Many former soldiers settled in this region, which they renamed Lordaeron in honor of the late general Lordain.
Guardians of Tirisfal
Tirisfal Glades was a place of power for centuries, being the seat of the Council of Tirisfal, who secretly waged their war against the demons of the Burning Legion. Among the places the Council members used was the Venomweb Vale protected by magically conjured spiders.
2,600 years BDP, fishermen reported a demon stalking the shore of Brightwater Lake. In fact, the dreadlord Kathra'natir corrupted the land around the lake, causing deaths, diseases, insects, and droughts of well waters. There were Eidre's people to rule and protect, and she asked her lover Alodi to come home with her. As a member of the Council, Alodi refused to go with her love, but instead, the half-elf and Meryl Winterstorm devised a plan with his colleagues to defeat the dreadlord. The council members were to give him his powers, and as a Guardian he rode a phoenix from the Venomweb Vale to the lake where Eidre's keep was located. Noticing the dreadlord on an island in the lake, Alodi defeated the demon and banished him back to the Twisting Nether through a rift. Eidre understood now Alodi's true calling. Looking from her keep's window, she witnessed the lake's restoration.
The fracturing of Arathor
By the year -1,200, the kingdom of Arathor began to split apart. As Strom's power continued to wane due to the lack of nearby natural resources, the nobles of the capital decided to depart to the fertile valleys and pastures of the north. In Tirisfal they founded a city-state and named it after the surrounding region: Lordaeron. The nobles used their wealth to buy up large plots of land, some of which had been developed by early settlers. These areas included the Agamand Mills and the farmsteads owned by the Balnir and Solliden families.
Second War and aftermath
The Horde led by Orgrim Doomhammer crossed the Alterac Mountains into the Glades and besieged Lordaeron's Capital City. However, due to the betrayals within the Horde and the arrival of the Alliance of Lordaeron led by Turalyon from behind, the isolated Horde army was certain to lose, so Warchief Orgrim sounded for retreat to Khaz Modan, with the Alliance racing after them.
By the time of the Third War, the Agamand family living at the Agamand Mills was the most prosperous family in Tirisfal Glades. Archbishop of the Church of the Holy Light Alonsus Faol died prior to the Third War and was buried at Faol's Rest.
Third War and aftermath
Under the rule of King Terenas, Tirisfal became a land of peaceful farms and small towns, its people living happily for generations. Unfortunately, it was one of the first places to fall to Arthas Menethil' armies after he ransacked Lordaeron, and its people were killed and risen as undead slaves to the Lich King.
As Lordaeron fell, Arthas arrived to the ravaged Balnir Farmstead and raised his former horse, Invincible, as a skeletal steed. The Scourge also raised Archbishop Faol from his grave. The Agamand Mills were taken by the undead as well and so were most of the settlements in the area.
During the Scourging of Lordaeron, Thomas Thomson was sent by the superior Knights of the Silver Hand to spent time with his family at the Thomson farm, located southwest of the Agamand Mills in Tirisfal Glades. As he was returning home, he encountered pockets of Scourge as the Capital City has fallen. Days later, a courier arrived at the farm and delivered a message about the death of Lord Uther. Ultimately, the farm was abandoned as Thomas sent his wife and children with Kul Tiran ships while he joined the remaining members of the paladin order. Like the other farms, the Thomas farm was growing pumpkins.
Just after the Third War ended, the Lich King began losing power thanks to the spell of Illidan Stormrage, and so was Arthas Menethil. After the Battle for Mount Hyjal, the death knight returned home and scoured the surrounding of the Capital City of any human citizens he could find. They were trying to leave the area and get to Dalaran, but Arthas, Kel'Thuzad, and Sylvanas Windrunner defended the passes and killed the fleeing refugees and their Silver Hand protectors.
Upon the successful cleansing, Arthas was recalled to Northrend to aid the Lich King. However, the weakened death knight was betrayed and the Dreadlord Insurgents attempted to kill him. Arthas fled the ruins of Capital City, and accompanied by Sylvanas' banshees, trekked through the Glades. Arriving to a field area near the Balnir Farmstead, the banshees attacked Arthas' last followers and Sylvanas shoot an arrow at the death knight, poisoning him. Kel'Thuzad and his skeletons found soon after, defeated the banshees and forced Sylvanas to retreat. With that, the lich and the death knight continued to a landing site from which Arthas left Lordaeron.
After a civil war in the Plaguelands, Sylvanas, her free-willed undead, and Garithos' Alliance resistance besieged and took Capital City, forming the Forsaken. The rebel undead managed to take control of Tirisfal and establish it as their home territory.
During that time, remnants of the Knights of the Silver Hand spied on the Forsaken moving into the Ruins of Lordaeron. To continue observing them, Alexandros Mograine and his team took the deserted Monastery in northern Tirisfal. With the subsequent splintering of the Silver Hand, the fanatical Scarlet Crusade established themselves and took the Monastery as their sanctuary. It was here that Balnazzar, posing as Saidan Dathrohan later transformed the maddened Thomas Thomson into an undead monstrosity that haunts not only Brill but all of Azeroth during the Hallow's End. Over time, the Crusaders took several watch towers in Tirisfal posing threats to the Forsaken.
At some point, a farm near Brill was stalked by Captain Renee Lauer and her force of Scarlet Crusaders, executing Jillian Grell and Rinn Firecaster in the process of cleansing the world of non-humans. Soon after, the relatives of the deceased, Barnabas Grell and Reynah Firecaster began searching the woods of Tirisfal, killing the Crusaders they found. Renee's group had a camp on the outskirts of the western Glades. Reynah and Barnabas soon found it and worked their spells and abilities against the enemies. Although they managed to capture the captain, other crusaders bested them and eventually killed, but not before Reynah could use her fire magic against them. As soon as they died, Sylvanas and Varimathras discovered the camp as well and led their force to kill the Crusaders.
World of Warcraft
This section concerns content related to the original World of Warcraft.
|This section is a lore stub.|
The Forsaken, having joined the Horde, battled against the Mindless Ones, Rot Hide gnolls, and the Scarlet Crusaders to soldify their hold on the area. Various parts of the Glades are protected by the Deathguards.
This section concerns content related to The Burning Crusade.
Battle for the Undercity
This section concerns content related to Wrath of the Lich King.
During the war against the Lich King, members of the Horde and Alliance formed a temporary alliance at the siege of Angrathar the Wrathgate. Grand Apothecary Putress's betrayal ended seven years of cold war between the two factions as their armies converged on the Undercity. Warchief Thrall's forces stormed the front gates of the Ruins of Lordaeron while King Varian Wrynn's army assaulted the Sewer entrance to the city. These two armies confronted Putress, Varimathras, and finally each other at the Battle for the Undercity.
This section concerns content related to Cataclysm.
Following the defeat of the Lich King, Sylvanas and the Forsaken made a number of improvements to Tirisfal Glades. The town of Brill was upgraded from the original, dilapidated "human" housing, to the modern Forsaken structures. The Bulwark still has Argent Dawn members (only Horde races) but is now accompanied by Undercity forces as well.
Deathknell was left mostly the same, but the Val'kyr sworn to Sylvanas are actively raising new undead to bolster their population. However, not every raised undead is willing to join the Forsaken, such as the Rotbrain undead or Lilian Voss, a former Scarlet Crusade member brought back from death by one of the Val'kyr in Deathknell, who was eager to get her revenge against the Crusade after her father refused her. The Crusaders also reinforced the Scarlet Palisade.
This section concerns content related to Legion.
The Twilight's Hammer cult led by Twilight Deacon Farthing made a camp in the Whispering Forest near Tyr's Fall and breached the Tomb of Tyr. Newly recruited heroes of the Conclave, the Valarjar, and the reformed Silver Hand made their way into the tomb as well, defeated the maddened cultists, and claimed its artifacts as their own. The tomb ultimately collapsed.
Battle for Azeroth
This section concerns content related to Battle for Azeroth.
In order to reclaim the Ruins of Lordaeron, the Alliance attacked Tirisfal Glades from the northern beach. In their march south, they completely destroyed Brill down to its foundations and knocked down the zeppelin towers. The area between Brill and the Ruins of Lordaeron is covered in blight that was released by Sylvanas during the Battle for Lordaeron.
The instanced, winged dungeon known as the Scarlet Monastery can be found in Tirisfal Glades. There are no other dungeons or battlegrounds in the area.
The western end of Tirisfal contains a large, inaccessible area. There is a path leading to the area accessed via a small lake in the northwest by the coast, past the Solliden Farmstead. The path is currently blocked by large rocks.
Places to stay
- Undercity - As a racial capital, the Undercity offers a full range of amenities for travelers.
- Brill - This quaint little town offers the recent dead a place of rest and respite from the horrors of Tirisfal. Be sure to check out the Gallows' End Tavern while in town.
- Bulwark - Though possessing limited supplies, the Argent Dawn and Forsaken forces at the Bulwark do offer members of the Horde a place to repair armor.
Maps and subregions
Map of Tirisfal Glades before patch 4.0.3a.
|Dungeon Name||Level Range||Group Size||Approximate Run Time|
Zeppelin towers south of Brill
Flight paths from Undercity
- Brill, Tirisfal Glades
- The Bulwark, Tirisfal Glades
- Forsaken High Command, Silverpine Forest
- The Sepulcher, Silverpine Forest
- Tarren Mill, Hillsbrad Foothills
- Hammerfall, Arathi Highlands
- Revantusk Village, The Hinterlands
- Thondroril River, Eastern Plaguelands
- Lights Hope Chapel, Eastern Plaguelands
- New Kargath, Badlands
- Sandy Beach, Vashj'ir
Flight paths from Brill
Flight paths from The Bulwark
- Undercity, Tirisfal Glades
- Brill, Tirisfal Glades
- Tarren Mill, Hillsbrad Foothills
- Strahnbrad, Hillsbrad Foothills
- Andorhal (Horde Side), Western Plaguelands
- Thondroril River, Eastern Plaguelands
Western Tirisfal Glades
To the west of Deathknell is a blank area surrounded by mountains. For a long time this was simply unincorporated terrain. In World of Warcraft: Cataclysm, it now contains a small lake and some trees, as well as an interesting circle of white mushrooms. The southern half of the area is called the Whispering Forest.
|Zone Name||Faction||Level Range||Direction||Access|
|Silverpine Forest||10 - 60||South||By foot.|
|Western Plaguelands||35 - 60||East||By foot.|
|Eversong Woods||1 - 20||Far to the northeast||Orb of Translocation located in Ruins of Lordaeron (Horde only).|
- Main article: List of Tirisfal Glades NPCs
Tirisfal Glades is home to several Forsaken of status. From the base camp in Deathknell, Executor Arren sends promising young Forsaken out into the world. In Brill, Executor Zygand leads the effort to reclaim Tirisfal from the Scarlet Crusade, and at the Bulwark, High Executor Derrington seeks to eradicate the foothold the Scourge has established in the Plaguelands.
- Main article: Tirisfal Glades storyline
During the Spring Lunar Festival, two elders appear in Tirisfal Glades.
- - Elder Darkcore, Undercity, upstairs in the Throne Room
- - Elder Graveborn, Brill, near the Gallows' End Tavern
- Fish - Fishing skill 25 needed to fish open water without catching junk
This section concerns content related to Mists of Pandaria.
- Farmer Solliden
- Fellicent's Shade
- Lost Soul
- Ressan the Needler
- Tormented Spirit
- Getting the exploration achievement at a low level can be difficult since as you approach Whispering Gardens, the Scarlet Scouts will kill you unless you are somewhat close to their level (29-30) or above.
- Lots of Books for can be found in the Scarlet Monastery.
The area around the city of Lordaeron was home to kobolds, and numerous Scourge undead roamed the city before the Forsaken conquered it, including a unique kind of zombie; Lordaeron City Mutants. A small group of red dragons burned down blighted farms outside the city gates.
A non-campaign map exists called Tirisfal Glades.
In the RPG
The Forsaken partially control Silverpine Forest, but Tirisfal Glades is entirely within their grasp. They rule the area from beneath Lordaeron in their capital of Undercity. Though the Forsaken claim to be free from the Scourge and willing to work with other races to destroy the Lich King, they seemed unhappy if they see living people.
Once a human land, Tirisfal's warriors served in the Second and Third Wars. The Scourge ravaged the region in the Third War and its people fled. After the war, Sylvanas Windrunner bent the Lich King's yoke enough to free herself and many others from his dominance. She termed these free undead the Forsaken and took the ruins of Lordaeron's capital city as her own. Tirisfal Glades is their unofficial kingdom.
The Forsaken attempt to carve out a home and battle against gnolls and worse. Some factions send in agents to sabotage and curtail the Forsaken's efforts, seeing them as no better than the Scourge.
While the Forsaken hunting and living in Tirisfal Glades consider darkhounds only a minor nuisance, occasionally a large enough pack poses a threat to alchemists exploring the woods for components.
The orc shaman Hakin was sent to Tirisfal to meet a Forsaken ambassador. He wasn't happy to be here because the spirits of the land — they cried in Lordaeron, painfully. When Brann Bronzebeard wandered through Tirisfal Glades, he met several undead members of the Cult of Forgotten Shadows. One of them was prophet. The fact that the Forsaken hold the Tirisfal Glades irritates the human nations.
The most obvious feature of Tirisfal Glades is the sky — altered by magic, it is a swirling blue pane that bathes the land in a cerulean glow, adding to the land's already surreal aspect. Mists constantly waft through the trees, and with the constant, twisted sky above you would not tell the difference between night and day. The undead plague has worked its evil on the trees, though not to the same extent as in the Plaguelands. Instead of becoming giant toadstools, the trees' bark has withered to a sickly violet and they bleed infected green-yellow sap. Danger lurks everywhere and death floats beneath the mist.
Like Silverpine Forest, Tirisfal Glades is an immense woodland with forbidding trees, threatening shadows and lurking mists. The animals in the woods are not as vicious as those in Silverpine, however. This haunting land, under the Forsaken's rule, may, in fact, be safer than Silverpine Forest.
The Forsaken control Tirisfal Glades and have several settlements throughout the area. This region is a place of mystery and adventure.
Magic has twisted the land; the trees are grown a sickly purple and ooze orange sap, and the sky is a constant swirling blue, shedding a surreal light on the wafting mists and lurking creatures.
Notes and trivia
- Before its fall, the citizens of Tirisfal used to enjoy picnics among the hills of Tirisfal during the last days of late autumn.
- When Aegwynn was little, her mother would take her to woods of Tirisfal Glades to a camping trip. The forests that lay just north of the capital of Lordaeron had always been a place of beauty and of quiet. She was surprised at the animals ranging freely, stunned by the incredible colors of the vegetation and amazed at how many stars she could see in the night sky away from the torchlight and lanterns of the city.
- The Flight from Lordaeron states there's a river in Tirisfal. No river is present in WoW.
- The border between Tirisfal and the Western Plaguelands once had one of the highest level gaps in the game, with mobs and quests going from level 10 in Tirisfal to level 50 in the Plaguelands (see Welcome Bear). This effect has diminished somewhat with Cataclysm, and other areas have similar gaps these days (e.g. Mulgore and the Southern Barrens), making it less remarkable.
- Something from Tirisfal is referred to as "Tirisfalen".
- An ancient plague wiped out thousands of innocent victims. Later it was discovered that the deadly agent in the plague was preserved through the venom of Night Web Spiders from Tirisfal.
- The farm of Thassarian's family is said to be outside Lordaeron.
- North of the Scarlet Monastery, there's a forested area. The area was used as a meeting place for Varimathras, Balnazzar, and Castillian.
- In the game, there are mountains north of the Monastery which are inaccessible due to the start of the northern Lordaeron and its invisible wall.
- In Warcraft III: The Frozen Throne, Sylvanas met with Balnazzar, Varimathras, and Detheroc in some ruins in the Tirisfal Glades. Arthas: Rise of the Lich King changed this to Silverpine Forest.
- It was long speculated by players that an Old God resided below Tirisfal Glades because of The Founding of Quel'Thalas chapter of History of Warcraft, until Ask CDev refuted its existence. However, it also confirmed that there was indeed something underneath it. The nature of that being was revealed in Chronicle Volume 1, which established that it was the C'Thrax Kith'ix, who had been slain by the titan keeper Tyr long ago and buried by the vrykul.
- Despite the Battle for Lordaeron officially revamping the center of Tirisfal, the western and eastern portions of it remain untouched as of current.
Battle for Lordaeron
The orcs preparing to attack the Tirisfal Glades from Lordamere Lake during the Second War.
Map of the Battle for Lordaeron.
- Patch 8.0.1 (2018-07-17): Zone updated for the Battle for Lordaeron, with some locations destroyed. Zidormi can take the player back to how it once was.
- Patch 7.3.5 (2018-01-16): Level scaling implemented, previous zone level: 1 - 10.
- Patch 4.0.3a (2010-11-23): Zone revamped.
- Patch 1.6.0 (2005-07-12):
- Tirisfal Glades (excluding the Bulwark graveyard) has been converted over to the new graveyard system. The system will place your character's spirit at the closest allowed graveyard in the zone.
- The Ruins of Lordaeron above Undercity now has a Horde-only graveyard. Horde characters dying inside the Undercity will use this new graveyard. Alliance characters will continue to solely use the Faol's Rest graveyard.
- Patch 0.6 (2004-04-13): Scarlet Monastery added.
- ^ a b Cycle of Hatred
- ^ http://blue.cardplace.com/cache/wow-general/3813779.htm
- ^ a b Legion: Paladin Artifact Review
- ^ World of Warcraft: Chronicle Volume 1
- ^ World of Warcraft: Chronicle Volume 1, pg. 63
- ^ World of Warcraft: Chronicle Volume 1, pg. 62 - 63
- ^ Libram of Ancient Kings#Truthguard
- ^ World of Warcraft: Chronicle Volume 1, pg. 65 - 66
- ^ a b Libram of Ancient Kings#The Silver Hand
- ^ A Good War, pg. 50
- ^ World of Warcraft: Chronicle Volume 1, pg. 117 - 118
- ^ Exile of the High Elves
- ^ a b c Saga of the Valarjar#Strom'kar, the Warbreaker
- ^ World of Warcraft: Chronicle Volume 1, pg. 127
- ^ World of Warcraft: Chronicle Volume 1, pg. 126
- ^ File:Chronicle Troll Wars Map.jpg
- ^ World of Warcraft: Chronicle Volume 1, pg. 133
- ^ a b Legends Volume 5: The First Guardian
- ^ World of Warcraft: Chronicle Volume 1, pg. 141
- ^ Tides of Darkness
- ^ World of Warcraft: Chronicle Volume 2
- ^ Arthas: Rise of the Lich King, chapter 16
- ^ Before the Storm
- ^ a b Legends Volume 5: A Cleansing Fire
- ^ King Arthas (WC3 Undead)
- ^ The Flight from Lordaeron (WC3 Undead)
- ^ Arthas: Rise of the Lich King, chapter 23
- ^ Sylvanas' Farewell (WC3 Undead)
- ^ World of Warcraft: Game Manual#The Lich King Triumphant
- ^ Ashbringer: Ashes to Ashes
- ^ Legends Volume 3: Crusader's Blood
- ^ Dark Portal Opens
- ^ Lordamere Lake (mission) (Horde)
- ^ "Legacy of the Damned: A New Power in Lordaeron", Warcraft III: The Frozen Throne. Blizzard Entertainment.
- ^ a b Lands of Conflict, pg. 105
- ^ Monster Guide, pg. 25
- ^ Horde Player's Guide, pg. 65
- ^ Horde Player's Guide, pg. 160
- ^ Horde Player's Guide, pg. 187
- ^ Lands of Conflict, pg. 106
- ^ World of Warcraft: The Roleplaying Game, pg. 21
- ^ Arthas: Rise of the Lich King, chapter 7
- ^ Cycle of Hatred, chapter 12
- ^ World of Warcraft: Chronicle Volume 1, pg. 161
- ^ Death Knight, chapter 1
- ^ Ashbringer: Dust to Dust, epilogue
- ^ A Kingdom Divided
- ^ Arthas: Rise of the Lich King, chapter 21