- This article is about trolls in general. For the playable trolls, see Troll (playable). For lore about the playable trolls, see Darkspear tribe.
- “Oh my - as I suspected. Your ancestry dates back to the dawn of the world. Great were the ancient empires of the trolls. I see a spark in your eyes, a powerful will - you wish to be great again, yes?”
Trolls (collectively referred to as trollkind) are a diverse sapient race that can be found in every part of Azeroth. They are one of the earliest known native races of Azeroth. There are several subspecies of troll, all of which descend from the Zandalari trolls.
Many trolls have no loyalty except amongst their own tribes or empires, with the exception of the Darkspear tribe, Shatterspear tribe, and Revantusk tribe, being allies of the Horde. Some of the remaining jungle trolls of the Shatterspear tribe joined the Horde following the events of Cataclysm. Trolls of the Darkspear tribe and the Zandalari Empire are the playable trolls in World of Warcraft.
- 1 Traits and characteristics
- 2 History
- 3 Culture
- 4 Troll subspecies
- 5 Playable race
- 6 Geneology
- 7 Notable
- 8 Lore and legends
- 9 Troll artifacts
- 10 Notes and trivia
- 11 Gallery
- 12 See also
- 13 References
Traits and characteristics
Troll is a species where multiple subspecies exist, these subspecies vary from being tall, lanky and muscular, with each subspecies being different than the others both physically and culturally. They have both elven and orc-like characteristics with their fierce tusks and long ears. Their long arms, strong legs, quick reflexes as well as their incredible agility and strength make them adept hunters.
Trolls have three fingers, and three toes with one protruding from the heel. Most trolls do not wear standard shoes or boots as they are simply more comfortable barefoot, however some do. And adorning them for battle or war is done by some.
Male trolls frequently squat in place, while the females do not.
Trolls and their various subspecies are some of the tallest mortal races on Azeroth. Both males and females have a variety of tusk styles ranging from small to large, they also feature a wide range of wild hair styles. The three largest subspecies of troll are the dark trolls, ice trolls and the Zandalari trolls, whom on average are much larger than their kindred. There is another variant of troll–albeit not a subspecies–that far exceed the normal size range, these trolls are called dire trolls.
Forest trolls' bodies can support plant life to a limited extent due to a mutation that took place many millennia ago. A thin layer of moss may grow on their skin shortly after they are born, giving them their characteristic greenish color. Some of them however grow fur too.
Jungle trolls' bodies are covered in short, soft fur which cause them to appear purple or gray. However, their range of color is even broader as many appear in shades of blue as well as tints of green.
Vol'jin in Kun-Lai stated that the human Tyrathan Khort could cope with the cold better than he could. However, he managed to get used to it very rapidly. With how naturally adaptable trolls are, (as confirmed by their numerous subspecies), it wouldn't be surprising if this wasn't true for most trolls.
Trolls have a characteristic way of speaking. Words like "yo" (a greeting) and "mon" (man) are common expressions. They speak with varying accents that resemble that of Jamaicans and Cubans. Cuban-sounding accents are more common among forest trolls.
Although enough physical damage can kill them, trolls can regenerate grievous physical injuries at an accelerated rate, giving them a large advantage in battle. All trolls are naturally able to regenerate lost limbs and organs. Trolls are capable of regenerating things such as; a crushed throat, a shattered jaw and evisceration during the heat of battle, allowing them to continue fighting. An arrow puncturing their bodies through-and-through will have its wound regenerated in mere seconds if the arrow is removed. They can survive a stab through the neck and throat, even when their regeneration is slowed by a poison, something any other race than a troll would die to. The most dedicated troll drummers allow themselves to get flayed alive, to have their own skin used for the drum they play. It is thanks to their incredible natural regeneration that they survive the grueling ordeal.
The best way to kill a troll is to cleanly decapitate them, otherwise they will most likely regenerate and come back for you.
Trolls on an individual basis are capable of controlling their powerful regeneration. How this actually works is unknown, but a troll can make a conscious decision to have a wound heal up fully, leaving no scarring behind, or to leave a scar behind as a reminder of what has happened. An example of this is Vol'jin, who after having been the victim of an attempted assassination decided to leave his throat scarred, to remind him of the mistake to accept Garrosh's mission. The scar also left his voice altered, meaning if he wanted to, he could allow his body to regenerate fully so that he may regain his old voice. Though this is not something he wanted as it was the voice that had threatened Garrosh, the voice that made him accept the mission that nearly led to his death.
Troll children are taught about those cursed by the loa, unable to heal even flesh wounds, to instill the proper respect for their patron spirits. There is also type of poison that can almost completely stop a troll's regenerative abilities for upwards of a few weeks. Elemental fires can also temporarily prevent trolls from regenerating their wounds.
Trolls are so well known for their regenerative abilities that alchemical mixtures, which induce some form of regeneration in other races, are referred to as "troll's blood elixirs," despite not actually containing any troll blood. Interesting to note is that the blood of sand trolls is thick enough to hold in your hand.
There are tales in troll culture about those blessed by the loa that can regenerate nearly the entirety of their bodies. The tale of Vula'jin the Void speaks of how he regrew almost his entire body after standing in a pool of shadowflame.
At the heart of ancient Kalimdor lay the Well of Eternity, an enormous lake filled with powerful energies. The Well accelerated the cycles of growth and rebirth on the primordial continent, and soon sentient life forms arose from the wilds. The trolls were among the first and most prolific. It was previously incorrectly stated that the trolls predated the arrival of the Titans.
Trolls are one of the oldest, if not the oldest, non-Old God created or titan-forged species on Azeroth. Troll legends mention the Titans, calling them "the Travelers", and their battle with the Old Gods. In the old days of trolls, before the days of troll empires such as the Empire of Zul, the shadow hunters were the leaders of small groups of trolls that over time formed small tribes. Over time, as trolls gathered in great cities, their influence was lessened. Despite this, the position is still a highly respected one.
The early trolls developed an array of superstitious customs. Some practiced cannibalism and warfare, others mystic practices and meditation, and others honed their ties to the dark and powerful form of magic known as voodoo. What all trolls shared was a common religion centered around Kalimdor's Wild Gods, which the trolls worshipped as deities under the name "loa". The troll tribes gathered near the sacred mountain range of Zandalar in southern Kalimdor, where many of the loa dwelt. The lesser tribes built small encampments on Zandalar's slopes, but the most powerful tribe, the Zandalari, claimed the highest peaks and plateaus. There, they built a cluster of shrines that would later come to grow into the temple city of Zuldazar.
About 16,000 years ago (long before the night elves summoned the wrath of the Burning Legion), trolls lorded over much of Kalimdor, which was then a single continent. The Zandalari were the earliest known trolls - the first tribe from which all tribes originated. The Zandalari were allied with the mogu and their empire, but both the mogu and Zandalari held contempt for one another. The Zandalari thought themselves above the mogu for two reasons: the presence of the loa, and that the Zandalari did not use slaves as the mogu did. The mutual contempt between the two would grow to polite indifference. They trusted the other not to attack, because they were confident they would defeat the other. While Zandalari and mogu stood back to back, they did not watch the other and did not see the other falter.
The Zandalari Empire was heavily dependent on a caste system, and as time went on those castes evolved into their own people. The lower castes eventually left the Zandalari Empire, and the Zandalar trolls were content to see them go, seeing them as children who would see the folly of youthful rebellion and come back begging for Zandalari approval.
However, the trolls would not return. Over time two distinct troll empires emerged: the Amani Empire of the middle forestlands and the Gurubashi Empire of the Southeastern jungles. Smaller tribes lived far North in the region now called Northrend. These tribes founded a small nation known as Zul'Drak, but they never achieved the size or prosperity of the southern empires.
The Gurubashi and Amani empires held some animosity for one another, but they rarely warred. At the time, their greatest common enemy was a third empire — the civilization of Azj'Aqir. The aqir were intelligent insectoids who ruled the lands of the far West. These insectoids were clever, greatly expansionary, and extremely hostile. The aqir aimed to eradicate all non-insect life from the fields of Kalimdor.
The trolls fought the aqir for many thousands of years but never succeeded in winning a true victory over them. Eventually, due to the trolls' persistence, the aqiri kingdom split into thirds as its citizens fled to separate colonies in the far Northern and Southern regions of the continent. Three aqiri kingdoms then emerged: Azjol-Nerub in the Northern wastes, Ahn'Qiraj in the Southern desert, and the Mantid Empire near the domain of mogu. Though the trolls suspected that there were other aqiri colonies beneath Kalimdor, their existence was never verified.
With the insectoids driven into exile, the twin troll empires returned to normalcy. Despite their great victories, neither civilization expanded much further than their original boundaries. However, ancient texts speak of a small faction of dark trolls who broke off from the Amani Empire and founded their own colony in the heart of the dark continent. There, the pioneers discovered the cosmic Well of Eternity, which allegedly transformed them into beings of immense power. Some legends suggested that these troll adventurers became the first night elves, and this was later confirmed by Freya, Cenarius, and the Tribunal of Ages when asked by the legendary explorer, Brann Bronzebeard.
After their discovery of the Well of Eternity, the descendants of these dark trolls, now calling themselves "Kaldorei" in their new language, came to power. Despite the trolls' attempts to keep them from expanding their territories, the night elves built a strong empire that expanded rapidly across primordial Kalimdor. Wielding magics never before seen by the their ancestors' kin, who remained largely superstitious, the night elves had little trouble demolishing the trolls' twin empires, an act the aqir could not accomplish.
The night elves systematically dismantled the trolls' defenses and supply chains. The trolls, unable to counter the elves' destructive magics, buckled under the onslaught. The actions of the night elves incurred the trolls' long-lasting hatred and disdain. The Gurubashi and Amani Empires fragmented within only a few short years.
Eventually, the night elves' reckless overuse of magic lured the demonic Burning Legion to the world. The demons destroyed much of the night elves' civilization. Though there are no records to indicate that the Legion attacked either troll civilization, it is likely that battles took place across the breadth of the continent.
At the end of this conflict, known as the War of the Ancients, the Well of Eternity imploded. The resulting shockwave shattered the greater landmass of Kalimdor. The center of the continent was blasted beneath the sea, leaving a group of multiple, broken, continents. Thus, great chunks of both the Amani and Gurubashi Empires were lost to the waves, but plenty of their land still exists in the present day lands of Quel'Thalas and Stranglethorn (respectively). The Azj'Aqir kingdoms of Azjol-Nerub, Ahn'Qiraj and the Mantid Empire have also survived in present day Northrend and Tanaris respectively.
Both troll civilizations recoiled from the vast destruction of the world they had known. The trolls later rebuilt their ravaged cities and set about to reclaim some of their former power.
The Troll Wars
- Main article: The Troll Wars
One of the oldest wars in Azeroth was between the forest trolls of Zul'Aman and the high elves. High elves founded their kingdom of Quel'Thalas over ground sacred to the trolls, beneath which lay an ancient troll city. This sparked conflict between the high elves and trolls, but the elves' magic frightened away the superstitious and angry troll warbands. 4,000 years passed while the trolls plotted and schemed as their numbers grew. Finally, a mighty troll army charged out from the shadowy forests and once again laid siege to the shining spires of Quel'Thalas.
The elves were hopelessly outnumbered. Believing defeat to be imminent, the high elves in desperation sought the aid of the humans of Arathor, teaching them the ways of magic in exchange for their assistance. Together the high elves and humans stood against the troll armies at the foot of the Alterac Mountains, and used fire magic to set the trolls ablaze and prevent them from regenerating their wounds. The troll armies broke and attempted to flee, but were chased by enemy forces and eventually killed. The forest trolls would never fully recover from their defeat, and history would never see them rise as one nation again.
Wrath of the Soulflayer
The long centuries following the Great Sundering of the world were difficult ones for the troll race. Famine and death were commonplace within the broken kingdoms. The Gurubashi trolls, driven to desperate ends, sought aid from ancient, mystical forces. Though both of the troll kingdoms shared a central belief in a great pantheon of primitive gods, the Gurubashi fell under the sway of a darker one.
1,500 years before the opening of the Dark Portal, Hakkar the Soulflayer (not to be confused with Hakkar the Houndmaster from War of the Ancients), a darker spirit, heard the trolls' calls of distress and decided to aid them. Hakkar gave his secrets of blood to the Gurubashi and helped them extend their civilization across most of Stranglethorn Vale and certain islands of the South Seas. Though he brought them great power, Hakkar demanded souls be sacrificed to him daily. He wanted to gain access to the physical world so that he could terrorize and devour mortal creatures. In time the Zandalari helped the Gurubashi realize what kind of creature they had courted with, and both forces turned against him. The strongest tribes rose up against Hakkar and his loyal priests, the Atal'ai.
The devastating war that ensued between Hakkar's followers and the rest of the Gurubashi tribes was not well-recorded and has mostly been passed on through oral tradition. The budding empire was shattered by the magic unleashed between the angry god and his rebel children. Just as the war began turning away from the trolls' favor, they succeeded in destroying Hakkar's avatar and banishing him from the mortal world.
The Atal'ai priests were eventually driven from the capital of Zul'Gurub and forced to survive in the uncharted swamplands of the North. Within the dense ferns they built a great temple, Atal'Hakkar, in honor of their fallen god, where they continued to worship and serve him.
The rest of the Gurubashi tribes separated after the great civil war had left their lands in ruins. The Skullsplitter, Bloodscalp, and Darkspear tribes set off to claim their own lands within the vast jungles of Stranglethorn. Though a fragile peace had settled over the broken empire, rumors of a prophecy that Hakkar would one day be reborn into the world spread.
When the Horde first arrived on Azeroth the troll tribes initially ignored the orcs, but when the Horde destroyed Stormwind and was moving to destroy Lordaeron, the forest trolls saw the perfect chance to gain vengeance for their defeat in the Troll Wars. Led by the mighty Zul'jin the Forest Trolls proved to be a great asset to the Horde during the Second War and were able to successfully strike against the high elves of Quel'Thalas. However when Warchief Orgrim Doomhammer decided to launch an assault on the humans of Lordaeron instead of continuing the invasion of Quel'Thalas Zul'jin grew furious. The forest trolls ultimately left the Horde when the orcs were defeated and placed into internment camps, with the Revantusk tribe still having a small amount of loyalty to the Horde. The troll race would then return to the former policy of ignoring the Horde until the Third War.
During the Third War the young Warchief Thrall heeded the Prophet's words to set sail to Kalimdor. On the way his ships crashed landed on the Darkspear islands and his forces encountered the Darkspear tribe. After helping the Darkspear tribe against the attacking Alliance forces, all sides were captured by murlocs under the command of the Sea Witch Zar'jira. After being saved and following Chieftain Sen'jin's dying wishes the Darkspear tribe swore loyalty to the Horde.
Following the aftermath of the Third War the orcs sent emissaries to the Hinterlands to renew the bonds of loyalty with their former forest troll allies. While the Vilebranch and the Witherbark refused outright, the Revantusk trolls agreed and have become the Horde's ally.
End of the troll capitals
In Stranglethorn Vale, the Hakkari and Atal'ai were able to successfully bring forth Hakkar the Soulflayer into Zul'Gurub, with the Gurubashi tribe quickly joining them in hopes of restoring themselves to their former glory. When word of Hakkar's presence reached the Zandalar tribe, they sent a contingent of Gurubashi high priests to stop him. When word reached the Zandalari that the priests had been enslaved by Hakkar, King Rastakhan sent emissaries from the island of Zuldazar to recruit champions from Azeroth's many races in the hope that Hakkar could once again be defeated. The Zandalari's call to arms was answered by the proud members of the Alliance and Horde, who slew the enthralled high priests, the Gurubashi witch doctor Jin'do, and ultimately Hakkar himself, leaving Zul'Gurub but a shadow of its former glory.
Sometime after the Blood elves joined the Horde, Zul'jin ventured out of Zul'Aman and became enraged that the Troll's eternal enemy joined with his former ally. Before Zul'jin could unleash the Amani within Zul'Aman onto the world Budd Nedreck and his group entered the scene. At Budd's behest adventurers entered Zul'Aman to steal the treasures within. Not only were the Amani's treasures stolen, adventurers were able to kill Warlord Zul'jin. With Zul'jin dead the forest troll capital became quiet with the surviving Amani grouping under Daakara.
In Northrend Zul'Drak became under attack by the Undead Scourge. In desperation to counter the Scourge threat the Drakkari trolls began sacrificing their own Loa animals god and draining their power for themselves. The Zandalari went to Zul'Drak to intervene on the behalf of the Loa and chronicle the end of the Drakkari empire. The empowered Drakkari soon became power-mad, and threatened the forces of the Alliance, Horde, and Argent Crusade who were attempting to fight back the Scourge in Northrend. As a result the adventurers employed by these forces were, after neutralizing the Scourge threat in the lowest reaches of the city, directed against the Drakkari and, with the aid of the Loa who escaped the Drakkari's plot, managed to take out all of the empowered trolls in the city. These adventurers soon converged on Gundrak itself, and there they slew the remaining champions of Zul'Drak, including their leader; High Prophet Gal'darah.
As a result of these events, the Zandalari considered Zul'Drak to have been destroyed by the Scourge.
A new troll empire
This section concerns content related to Cataclysm.
The recent cataclysm has seen the Revantusk become members of the Horde who are fighting to claim the entire Hinterlands for the tribe and the Horde. The cataclysm has also seen the Shatterspear tribe end their isolationist policy and join the Horde which was now under the command of the new Warchief, Garrosh Hellscream.
Meanwhile, a new adventurer who traveled through Stranglethorn would gain the friendship of a raptor chick. Through this chick and its adventurer companion, the Alliance and Horde discovered that Jin'do, now a shade, had enacted a plan to restore the Gurubashi to greatness by resurrecting their high priests and champions (himself included of course) and summoning Hakkar. And while the resurrection of Mandokir and Venoxis was successful, the adventurer managed to throw a wrench into his plans by destroying Jeklik's body and preventing her resurrection.
The Shatterspear was not the only tribe who has seen a change in their stance on the other nations, however. The chaos unleashed by the recent Cataclysm caused immense damage to Zandalar itself, and has thus reshaped the Zandalari's stance about the world as well, and the dwindling remnants of their race. Around the time of the Alliance and Horde's siege on the Twilight Highlands, a meeting was then by the mysterious prophet Zul to discuss the fate of their people. Among those in attendance at the meeting are Vol'jin of the Darkspear, Jin'do of the Gurubashi, Daakara of the Amani and an unknown ice troll leader.
There the tribe leaders are reminded of the falls of Zul'Farrak and Zul'Drak. Zul then says that the troll tribes must unite to form a new Troll Empire. He entices both Jin'do and Daakara with promises of restoring Zul'Gurub and Zul'Aman to their former glory. As the other trolls agree to join the Zandalari, Vol'jin begins walking away and only stops when asked if he would betray his people. Vol'jin retorts that the Horde are his people and promises to stop the Zandalari should they bring war to the land.
Knowing that a new troll empire would be a grave threat to Azeroth, Vol'jin has sent Darkspear emissaries to both Orgrimmar and Stormwind, knowing that the Horde alone can not stop the Zandalari. While Vol'jin's efforts have been able to keep the Amani contained within Zul'Aman, the Gurubashi were able to launch an attack on Stranglethorn before being pushed back to Zul'Gurub. Vol'jin's Darkspear have been able to keep themselves entrenched within both Zul'Aman and Zul'Gurub, the Revantusk and Shatterspear tribes have also refused to join the Zandalari and have stayed true to the Horde.
With the aid of Halduron Brightwing's Farstriders and Vereesa Windrunner's rangers Vol'jin and the Darkspear where able to keep the Amani hold up inside Zul'Aman. After deciding an appropriate battle plan Vol'jin personally leads a strike force into Zul'Aman and with the aid of adventurers puts an end to Daakara which severely weakening the Amani even further and ends Zandalari's efforts within Zul'Aman.
However empowered by the Zandalari's offer the Gurubashi launched an all out assault to claim Stranglethorn, though with the effort of brave adventurers they are pushed back into Zul'Gurub where Darkspear agents have claimed the entrance. These agents were then able to discover that Jin'do is wrestling Hakkar the Soulflayer into submission, holding him by spirit chains and stripping out his power into himself. With this knowledge they recruited adventurers who ventured into Zul'Gurub and put and end to the Gurubashi leadership before freeing Hakkar who swiftly killed Jin'do. Thus dealing the Gurubashi a sever blow though and removing the Zandalari's influence, though at the cost of the Soulflayer's freedom.
The return of the Thunder King
This section concerns content related to Mists of Pandaria.
When the mists hiding the southern continent Pandaria lifted, the Zandalari realized they had an opportunity to claim the land as their own by resuming their allegiance with the mogu. To cement this allegiance, and their place on Pandaria, the trolls invaded the Kun-Lai region of the continent to find and retrieve the corpse of Lei Shen, the Thunder King and first emperor of the Mogu Empire. With their powerful voodoo magic, the Zandalari were successful in resurrecting him, and, shortly after the Alliance and Horde made landfall, the resurrected Thunder King began an ernest campaign to restore the Mogu Empire to glory. He was aided by the united troll forces, with the Council of Elders, a group consisting of the leaders of the Farraki, Gurubashi, Drakkari and Amani, standing guard over the entrance to his palace.
It wasn't long, however, before the forces of the Alliance and Horde assaulted the Thunder King's palace and eliminated the troll presence within, an act that Lei Shen was thankful for as he considered them 'filth'. Shortly afterwards, these adventurers would end Lei Shen's life as well, ending the threat of both empires on Pandaria.
Blood in the Snow
This section concerns content related to Mists of Pandaria.
This failure did not stop the Zandalari. In Dun Morogh, an emissary of Zandalar arrived to aid the Frostmane tribe in building an army to assault Ironforge. Using enslaved elementals, the Frostmane summoned a mighty blizzard around their home and kidnapped a number of dwarven scouts. While the Bronzebeard and Wildhammer clans refused to take action out of distrust for the Dark Iron clans, Moira chose to lead her people to defend Ironforge herself; aided by King Varian Wrynn and a trio of adventurers. Their combined forces rescued the prisoners, stopped the blizzard, and killed Hekima the Wise, ending the Frostmane threat.
Warlords of Draenor
This section concerns content related to Warlords of Draenor.
This section concerns content related to Legion.
When the Burning Legion invaded Azeroth for the third time, the Darkspear tribe participated in the defense of Azeroth and offensive against the demons, joining various class orders. Warchief Vol'jin also died during the Battle for Broken Shore. The Frostmane tribe in Dun Morogh was attacked by the demons as well.
Battle for Azeroth
This section concerns content related to Battle for Azeroth.
Please add any available information to this section.
After the Horde rescued the daughter of Rastakhan, Talanji and Prophet Zul from Stormwind City, the Zandalari trolls of the Zandalari Empire on Zandalar started operating with the Horde, becoming allies.
|Source information needed!
Trolls are very isolated beings. Most trolls, excluding a few tribes (one such being the Darkspear), don't speak any of the common languages. Wild jungle trolls and coastal trolls are territorial and hostile toward trolls of other tribes. They are highly tribally spiritual. The center of a tribe's spirit is the tribe's priest or superior hunter.
Other than tribes such as the Darkspear, most trolls will attack outsiders on sight, even trolls of other tribes. Uncivilized trolls live all across Kalimdor and the Eastern Kingdoms. The jungle near Booty Bay in the Eastern Kingdoms is infamous for its many aggressive jungle troll inhabitants.
However, trolls willing to fight and work for travelers and armies in exchange for gold are not unknown. Arthas and the Alliance used troll mercenaries on a mission in Northrend (though they were likely retconned into human mercenaries). The Shadowtooth tribe of dark trolls also assisted in defense of the World Tree.
- Main article: Zandali
When speaking orcish, common or any other language, trolls often have a strong Jamaican or Cuban-sounding accent, the latter being more common with forest trolls. However, when speaking their own, native language of Zandali, the accent is not necessary but likely varying between the various subspecies, tribes and empires.
It is unknown how much their tusks, especially those of male trolls, affect their pronunciation and/or accent, especially for dire trolls whose tusks are much larger than most.
Trolls, both male and female, often have names with Zandali suffixes and/or prefixes, sometimes consisting entirely of both. They also do not normally have family names as seen by the majority of trolls lacking one, however there are exceptions, of which some adopt the name of their tribe as their surname, as seen below.
Trolls with surnames
While it is fairly rare (and a minority) to see trolls bearing surnames (especially of Zandali spelling & meaning) there are trolls that do, such as:
In the canon
- Ajamon Ghostcaller
- Amira Blazeweaver
- Awilo Lon'gomba <Cooking Trainer>
- Bookie Vel'jen
- Canaga Earthcaller
- Chief Ukorz Sandscalp
- Daga Ramba
- Drulzegar Skraghook
- Iggy Darktusk
- Kalyimah Stormcloud <Bags & Sacks>
- Ki'ta Arrowtusk
- Lar Prowltusk
- Lin'flin Fowlhunter
- Lorenth Thundercall
- Je'neu Sancrea <The Earthen Ring>
- Jon-Jon Jellyneck <Wind Rider Master>
- Kali Remik
- Marli Two-Toes <General Goods>
- Najak Hexxen
- Sandarr Dunereaver
- Searn Firewarder
- Sheya Stormweaver
- Sirka Duskfisher
- Tae'loxe Soulshrivel <Warmongering Honor Quartermaster>
- Telf Joolam
- Tony Two-Tusk
- Una Kobuna <Alchemy & Inscription Supplies>
- Unjari Feltongue <Warlock Trainer/The Heartbearer>
- Uzo Deathcaller
- Vel'rin Fang
- Volda Gan'dra
- Vyse Jin'kala
- Warcaller Sardon Truslice
- Zabra Hexx
- Zalas Witherbark <Warband Leader>
- Zend'li Venomtusk <Poison Supplies>
- Zilzibin Drumlore
- Zoltrik Drakebane
- Zul'arek Hatefowler
- Zul'Brin Warpbranch
Trolls with shared surnames
- Pay attention to that most of these are jungle trolls that are current or former members of the Darkspear tribe and Shatterspear tribe. It may be that it's a tradition they adopted from the other races and members of the Horde.
- Some of these may just be titles that may be perceived as surnames.
- Zalas Witherbark adopted the name of his tribe as his surname.
In the Roleplaying Game
In the Trading Card Game
- Sen'zir Beastwalker
- Ka'tali Stonetusk
- Kray'zin Firetusk
- Ras'fari Bloodfrenzy
- Ra'waza Stonetusk
- Wazzuli Wildmender
- Zul'that Steeltusk
The following prefixes of suffixes are added to a troll’s name to denote positions of honor or tribal status:
- fon = suffix, means “loner,” or someone who has deliberately absented himself from troll society and its obligations
- jin = suffix, means “leader” and refers to the tribal chief or elder
- Zul = prefix, roughly translates to “great” and can denote a master (person) or a location (city)
Cannibalism and voodoo
Cannibalism is a relatively common troll practice. Several specific troll tribes have been confirmed as cannibalistic, including the Mossflayer and Vilebranch tribes. All of the currently known tribes of ice trolls practice cannibalism. Sand trolls, forest trolls, dark trolls, and jungle trolls are also frequently cannibalistic. Notable exceptions include the Zandalar and Revantusk tribes. The Darkspear tribe practiced cannibalism until they joined forces with the Horde, who forbade the practice.
Not all trolls practice voodoo, but it is as widespread as cannibalism. Little is known about the emergence of voodoo among the trolls, for most tribes that possess such knowledge are unwilling to share it with outsiders. However, with the recent advent of Zandalari trolls to Yojamba Isle, many researchers have speculated that voodoo may have originated with the Zandalari.
A small number of trolls are strikingly larger and more heavily muscled than the rest of their brethren. Dire trolls do not have a racial distinction from the rest of the troll race. A variety of reasons might be behind this unusual size and musculature. For example, these trolls might have been altered alchemically or magically (see troll berserker). They might also simply have evolved to be larger than average. These large trolls are not regarded as monstrous by other trolls.
Displayed in many troll tribes, the trolls have mummified their deceased in the past. In all cases seen so far, the trolls have had the power to reanimate their dead. The Sandfury and Amani are such tribes. Other races can also reanimate deceased and mummified trolls, as can be seen in Northrend, where many undead trolls are a part of the Scourge legions.
- Main article: Loa
The troll belief system is complex, full of dark spirits and primal, often animalistic gods known as loa. Countless loa exist, most weak, but some very powerful. Most are shapeless, whereas others have animal or creature forms. Troll families often worship their own family loas, cities usually have their own civic deities, and the greatest loa are worshiped by the nation as a whole. The Zandalar tribe believe that powerful, enlightened Zandalari can become loas upon their death.
- The trolls have a long and storied history of summoning hydras.
- Trolls tend to prefer gold in their jewelry.
- Among cultures such as the Bloodscalp tribe, any use of actual utensils counts as fine dining.
- Snakes of all types are venerated throughout troll culture.
- Long ago, the most dedicated of troll war-drummers would allow themselves to be flayed alive in order to provide the hide for their precious instruments. While a troll's incredible natural regeneration allowed one to survive such a grueling ordeal, it was a long and excruciating process that drove many mad with pain. It is said that, if such a war drummer was to be slain while playing such an instrument, his spirit would pass into it.
- Voodoo figurines were built and animated to assist troll witch doctors in minor, everyday tasks such as washing loincloths or scrubbing blood off the hut floor. They were often powered by flasks of mojo, troll sweat, the flesh of tribal enemies, or by devouring tiny portions of their owners' souls.
- Trolls will usually build different types of structures depending on where they live. Each troll empire built sprawling temple-cities similar to real-life mesoamerican architecture, smaller tribes often live in villages built out of wood, and some of them even have the habit of living in carved out trees.
- The battle-cry "For Zul'jin!" became well-known among the trolls of the world after Zul'jin made his legendary escape from his captivity of the high elves near the end of the Second War.
- Rather than wedding rings, some trolls wear wedding nose-rings, such as .
- Some trolls use wax for their tusks.
- "One singe, two flash, three cringe, four ash." - Troll nursery rhyme
- Blood trolls: These trolls have multiple pale skin colors: pale with a reddish hue, pale blue, gray-green and gray. They are an ancient troll subspecies that inhabit the swamp of Nazmir on Zandalar and worship the blood god G'huun.
- Dark trolls: (aka dark forest trolls) These trolls have gray to black skin and are mostly subterranean. Prior to the Great Sundering, the dark trolls inhabited areas such as Mount Hyjal as well as areas that would later become Ashenvale, Felwood & Darkshore. After it, some of them still lived on Mount Hyjal, mainly living in vast caverns possibly spanning several regions. Long ago, one of their tribe settled on the edge of the Well of Eternity and became night elves.
- Forest trolls: These trolls come in multiple shades of green due to a thin layer of moss (and sometimes other flora) growing on their skin. They formed the Amani Empire that once ruled all of Lordaeron as well as Quel'Thalas.
- Ice trolls: These trolls have skin colored white to several shades of blue. They typically have thick manes of hair, more so than other troll species. Prior to the Sundering, ice trolls like other trolls are descended from the Zandalari who settled in the cold areas of northern ancient Kalimdor (now Northrend) in the aftermath of the Aqir and Troll War. There their tribe grew to become the Drakkari Empire. The Frostmane and Winterax tribes were once under Drakkari control, yet have moved south and begun attacking areas in the Eastern Kingdoms.
- Jungle trolls: These trolls range from purple to blue, to gray due to short, soft fur. Some jungle trolls have been born with skin colored a shade of green. These trolls formed the Gurubashi Empire that ruled the south-eastern and south-western jungles of ancient Kalimdor prior to the Great Sundering.
- Sand trolls: These trolls have coarse and cracked skin that tends to be brown or gold. They have thinner manes of hair than their brethren. They were jungle trolls isolated from the Gurubashi Empire by the Great Sundering in an area that swiftly became the desert of Tanaris. They have never formed an empire.
- Zandalari trolls: These trolls stand upright and have skin colors ranging from white to black, and blue to green, accompanied by glowing eyes of varying colors. Zandalari are also seen with stone-like patches on their shoulders, down their arms and forearms, on their ankles and feet, sometimes their chests as well as on their brows and foreheads. These patches might appear in other areas as well. However, there are also many smooth-skinned Zandalari who lack these stone-esque patches. The earliest known trolls belonged to the Zandalar tribe, from which all other trolls are descended. The Zandalari make their home on Zandalar, an island in the South Seas formed from the Zandalar mountains after the great Sundering.
Two other kinds of trolls are mentioned, but their validity is disputed:
- Island trolls - The Darkspears are jungle trolls, but were referred to as island trolls in Warcraft III. However this was later changed. Although they may be a minor subspecies of jungle trolls having lived on islands for many years.
- Steppe trolls - Briefly mentioned in the Manual of Monsters: Appendix Three as inhabiting the steppes and grasslands of Azeroth and being allied with the Horde.
History of their discovery
This section contains information that needs to be cleaned up. Reason: RPG and canon is mixed.
At one time, only four species of trolls had been discovered on the continents of the Eastern Kingdoms and other known lands. It was commonly believed by eminent scholars from Dalaran and elsewhere that these were the only four species of trolls on all of Azeroth. These included forest trolls, jungle trolls, ice trolls, and the Zandalari themselves. Alonda of the Kirin Tor strongly believed that there was a fifth species yet to be discovered based on references she had discovered in her research. Her theory was commonly ridiculed by most scholars in the world, including Medivh. It was also believed that trolls were nearly extinct, but were reappearing with the coming of the orcs.
During the Third War, with the discovery of Kalimdor, two more species were discovered including the rare sand trolls and dark trolls, found only on that continent. The orcs discovered the Darkspear island trolls, an offshoot of the jungle trolls, on the Darkspear islands (believed today to be part of the Broken Isles) during their flight from Lordaeron. The Zandalari trolls were first encountered by various races when they set up an expedition on Yojamba Isle in Stranglethorn Vale in order to find allies to defeat the god Hakkar, mentioned above.
Historians and physicians generally classify trolls into four categories: forest trolls, jungle trolls, ice trolls, and sand trolls. The trolls of the Zandalar tribe are considered unclassifiable because the Zandalari are the earliest known trolls, from whom all other trolls are descended. Some debate exists as to how many categories are necessary in order to describe the various species within the troll race. Several notable authorities on the topic have chosen to specify a fifth category: namely, the dark trolls. Some of the scholarly debate includes those that classify Zandalar trolls as jungle trolls or as their own species. Trolls found in desert areas are classified as desert trolls. Because there is only evidence of a single tribe of the species in existence, scholars have begun to classify the species as the Sandfury trolls. Most scholars think them a small and anomalous deviation of the more common troll species, namely the jungle trolls. Some refer to dark trolls as dark forest trolls, implying they believe them be a type of forest troll or derivation thereof. Darkspear trolls are mainly classified as island trolls.
In Day of the Dragon, Vereesa Windrunner talks about trolls: "As with elves, dwarves, and especially humans, there had existed different types of trolls. Some few spoke with the sophistication of elves — even while they tried to take one's head. Others ranged toward the more savage, especially those who frequented the barrows and other underground realms. Yet Veressa doubted that there could be any lower form of troll than the three base creatures that had captured her and Falstad — and clearly had darker designs for them."
In World of Warcraft, only trolls of the Darkspear and Zandalari tribe are playable. The Horde-aligned forest troll tribe, the Revantusk tribe, has a village in the Hinterlands. Another Horde-aligned jungle troll tribe, the Shatterspear tribe is located in Darkshore.
- Zandalari troll
- Blood troll
- Dark troll
- Forest troll
- Ice troll
- Jungle troll
- Gurubashi tribe - Namesake and strongest tribe of the Gurubashi Empire.
|High Priestess Mar'li||High Priestess of Shadra, Gurubashi representative on the Council of Elders||Gurubashi tribe, Zandalar tribe||Killable||Lightning Promenade, Throne of Thunder|
|Ana'thek the Cruel||Chieftain of the Skullsplitter tribe||Skullsplitter tribe||Killable||Ruins of Zul'Mamwe, Northern Stranglethorn|
|Bloodlord Mandokir||Warlord of the Gurubashi tribe||Gurubashi tribe, Zandalar tribe||Killable||Mandokir's Domain, Zul'Gurub|
|Gan'zulah||Chieftain of the Bloodscalp tribe||Bloodscalp tribe||Deceased-Killable||Ruins of Zul'Kunda, Northern Stranglethorn|
|Jammal'an the Prophet||Leader of the Atal'ai||Atal'ai tribe, Hakkari||Killable||Lair of the Chosen, Temple of Atal'Hakkar|
|Jin'do||Ruler of Zul'Gurub||Gurubashi tribe, Zandalar tribe||Deceased-Killable||Altar of the Blood God, Zul'Gurub|
|Zanzil the Outcast||Outcast witch doctor||Gurubashi tribe, Zandalar tribe||Deceased-Killable||Ruins of Aboraz, Cape of Stranglethorn|
|Vol'jin||Chieftain of the Darkspear tribe, Warchief of the Horde||Deceased||Various|
|Sen'jin||Father of Vol'jin, former chieftain of the Darkspear tribe||Deceased||Unknown|
|Rokhan||Lead scout of the Darkspear||Alive||Various|
|Champion Uru'zin||Champion and quartermaster of the Darkspear tribe||Alive||Orgrimmar Skyway, Orgrimmar|
|Master Gadrin||Advisor and mentor to Vol'jin, leader of Sen'jin Village||Alive||Sen'jin Village, Durotar|
|Vanira||Powerful Darkspear shaman||Alive||Echo Isles, Durotar|
|Zalazane||Traitor and self-proclaimed ruler of the Echo Isles||Deceased||Formerly Echo Isles, Durotar|
|Zen'tabra||Powerful Darkspear druid||Alive||Various|
|Frost King Malakk||Drakkari representative on the Council of Elders||Drakkari tribe, Zandalar tribe||Killable||Lightning Promenade, Throne of Thunder|
|Gal'darah||High Prophet of Akali||Drakkari tribe||Killable||Ritual Chamber of Akali, Gundrak|
|Great Father Arctikus||Chieftain of the Frostmane tribe||Frostmane tribe||Killable||Frostmane Hold, Dun Morogh|
|Grik'nir the Cold||Leader of the Frostmane trolls in Coldridge Valley||Frostmane tribe||Killable||Coldridge Valley, Dun Morogh|
|Korrak the Bloodrager||Champion of the Winterax tribe||Winterax tribe||Killable||Amphitheater of Anguish, Zul'Drak|
|Overlord Drakuru||Overlord of the Scourge forces in Zul'Drak||Scourge||Killable||Voltarus, Zul'Drak|
|The Prophet Tharon'ja||Immortal prophet||Scourge||Killable||Drak'Tharon Overlook, Drak'Tharon Keep|
|Warlord Zol'Maz||Warlord of Zul'Drak||Drakkari tribe||Killable||Zol'Maz Stronghold, Zul'Drak|
|Sul the Sandcrawler||Farraki representative on the Council of Elders||Farraki tribe, Zandalar tribe||Killable||Lightning Promenade, Throne of Thunder|
|Chief Ukorz Sandscalp||Former chieftain of the Sandfury tribe||Sandfury tribe||Deceased-Killable||Zul'Farrak|
|Antu'sul||Overseer of Sul||Sandfury tribe||Killable||Zul'Farrak|
|Hydromancer Kulratha||Sister of Velratha, attempted to summon Kai'ju Gahz'rilla during the Elemental Unrest||Sandfury tribe, Twilight's Hammer||Deceased||Zul'Farrak (Elemental Unrest)|
|Hydromancer Velratha||Well-traveled hydromancer||Sandfury tribe||Deceased-Killable||Zul'Farrak|
|Mazoga||Sandfury traitor||Independent||Deceased||Sandsorrow Watch, Tanaris|
|Theka the Martyr||Ancient martyr of Zul'Farrak killed in a war between the sand trolls and the qiraji||Sandfury tribe||Killable||Zul'Farrak|
Lore and legends
|This article or section needs to be cleaned up to a higher standard of quality.|
There are many tales and legends of trolls in Azeroth. Most of the known tales today come from the Gurubashi. With the many millennia of trolls having inhabited Azeroth and documented history, the amount of undiscovered legends and stories is likely very high.
Moon over the Vale
Moon Over the Vale is a short poem or song describing the life of these trolls on an old stone tablet.
Gri'lek the Wanderer
Gri'lek the Wanderer tells of a troll who lost his arm. Because he turned away from the spirits, he's now doomed to wander. The story is written on a stone tablet, but there's also a named "Arm of Gri'lek".
Fall of Gurubashi
The Emperor's Tomb
The Emperor's Tomb is a very short poem or song, which tells the trolls to leave or die. Like most troll lore, it can be found on a stone tablet
The Stone of the Tides
The Stone of the Tides is a Gurubashi legend about a mighty artifact - the . It chooses a so-called Tidebearer, giving him immense power, but also killing him slowly. The only source of this tale today is the Royal Library in Stormwind.
The Twin Empires
The Founding of Quel'Thalas
Arathor and the Troll Wars
Throughout the world, there have been many artifacts from the troll empires. Weapons of power that have existed for possibly millennia. Some of these artifacts are known as:
- - A renowned greatsword originating from the Amani Empire.
- - A renowned greatsword originating from the Farraki tribe.
- - A renowned greatsword originating from the Gurubashi Empire.
- - The magical and powerful fist weapon having once belonged to an Amani warlord by the name of Atai'natha.
- - A magical mace once worn by a Zandalari high priest of the tiger deity, Shirvallah. It was used to brutally claim many lives a long time ago.
- - Indication of trolls having worn armor made of chitin. Most likely that of aqir.
- - An artifact from when a tribe of dark trolls were transitioning from worshiping the loa to Elune.
- - A piece of equipment that once had vivid imagery of trolls fighting faceless ones.
- - A pair of spiked boots made to fit the front of a troll's foot. While trolls usually do not wear much on their feet, this pair shows that some trolls adorned their feet for combat, and possibly to act as another set of weaponry.
- A possible greataxe might have originated from the Drakkari Empire, had the initial idea of having Gundrak as a raid, not been scrapped. Thus, it would have been the ice troll equivalent of the above-mentioned swords.
- It is possible that these weapons of power may have been crafted by the Zandalari, when the great Empire of Zul split into the four main empires (Zandalari, Amani, Gurubashi & Drakkari) as a gift for their brethren.
- Another possibility is that the aforementioned weapons were gifted to each troll empire, or troll species, as a sign of thanks for their devotion. (Most reasonable considering the age of sand trolls as a species compared to the others.)
- It could also be possible that the weapons once belonged to the first emperors of the ancient empires, with Jin'rohk having belonged to the first emperor of the Gurubashi Empire, while Zin'rokh belonged to the first emperor of the Amani Empire.
- Trolls during the Aqir and Troll War seem to have had a habit of taking aqir chitin to use in their armour. Sand trolls are likely to have carried on with this due to their proximity to the qiraji.
Notes and trivia
- Despite World of Warcraft: Chronicle Volume 1 retconning the trolls predating the arrival of titans as established in Ask CDev Answers - Round 2, the Zandalar description reinforces the Ask CDev version.
- In the canceled Warcraft Adventures, Deathwing was served by trolls which had mottled and grey skin, a fact that might have inspired the description of the trolls later also said to have served him during the War of the Ancients, and maybe even the drogbar.
- Some trolls can be seen with three toes, two frontal and one located as a protrusion from their heel. For some reason, not all trolls seem to have a third toe. An example would be the Zandalari trolls, who show no sign of a third toe, while the playable jungle trolls do, as well as the (outdated) forest and ice troll models.
- Zul'jin's model in Heroes of the Storm has no third toe, although his model from the Zul'Aman raid does.
- Frost King Malakk, an ice troll from the Council of Elders does have a heel-toe.
- High Priestess Mar'li, a jungle troll from the Council of Elders does have a heel-toe.
- Kazra'jin, a forest troll from the Council of Elders does not have a heel-toe.
- Sul the Sandcrawler, a sand troll from the Council of Elders does not have a heel-toe.
- Trolls, in general, are inspired from different cultures. Their accents are usually based on Afro-Caribbean dialects, their religion is based on West African Vodun, and their architectural style is reminiscent of Mesoamerican or Pre-Columbian civilizations.
- In World of Warcraft, the tusks of a male jungle troll grow out from their upper premolars, with canines in front and molars behind, this can be seen when their mouth is fully open. However, a skull from Warlords of Draenor also shows their tusks protruding from underneath their cheekbones. It is most likely that the male troll model is the more accurate one. The forest and ice troll models, though, depict the tusks coming from their lower lip.
- Additionally many pieces of artwork and troll models in the RTS game often depict male trolls with tusks coming out of their lower lip such as the Berserker. Some artwork even depicts trolls with tusks coming out of their cheeks rather then their mouths.
- It can be speculated that the location of tusks can vary depending on the individual.
- Female trolls do not have tusks, instead their lower canines have grown into fangs. According to the game models. A few male trolls in the RTS games and artwork also have more fang-like tusks.
- Trolls of both genders have sharp upper and lower canines.
- In the case of troll druid morphs, both the bear form and cat form have their tusks located on the lower jaw, seemingly not connected to anything in particular. This might just be model-related, rather than an accurate lore representation of the tusks' roots.
- The presentation of trolls in Warcraft meshes with the series bucking the trends of such Lord of the Rings based (in the eyes of pop culture) creatures, presenting them as intelligent, lean and lanky, and with distinct cultures, far removed from the mindless brutes they're more typically portrayed as.
Art of a troll headhunter by Samarskiy on DeviantArt.
Art of a sacrificial ceremony by bayardwu on DeviantArt.
Art of a troll spearthrower by zhou he (brainlesszombie) on ArtStation.
- ^ Stackpole, Michael A.. "10", Vol'jin: Shadows of the Horde, 141 (ebook). ISBN 978-1416-55067-9.
- ^ World of Warcraft: Chronicle Volume 1
- ^ Ask CDev Answers - Round 4
- ^ a b World of Warcraft: Official Beginner's Guide, 47
- ^ Height#Troll subspecies
- ^ a b c d Troll Compendium: Troll Traits
- ^ a b Troll Compendium: Forest Trolls
- ^ Kazra'jin has fur
- ^ a b Troll Compendium: Jungle Trolls
- ^ Vol'jin: Shadows of the Horde, pg. 56
- ^ World of Warcraft: Chronicle Volume 1, pg. 70
- ^ a b Vol'jin: Shadows of the Horde, pg. 145, 146
- ^ Vol'jin: Shadows of the Horde, pg. 116, 286
- ^ Vol'jin: Shadows of the Horde, pg. 124
- ^ Vol'jin: Shadows of the Horde, pg. 8
- ^ Haunted War Drum#History
- ^ Vol'jin: Shadows of the Horde, pg. 117
- ^ a b c d Ask CDev Answers - Round 2
- ^ Gri'lek's Adventure Guide
- ^ Vol'jin: Shadows of the Horde, pg. 21
- ^ a b Arathor and the Troll Wars
- ^ a b World of Warcraft: Chronicle Volume 1
- ^ Vol'jin: Shadows of the Horde, pg. 226, 254, 255, 258
- ^ a b Vol'jin: Shadows of the Horde, pg. 200
- ^ a b c d e f Troll Compendium: Early Troll Civilization
- ^ a b World of Warcraft: The Magazine Volume 2 Issue 1
- ^ The Founding of Quel'Thalas
- ^ World of Warcraft: Chronicle Volume 1, pg. 138
- ^ a b Patch 4.1.0#Trailer
- ^ a b Troll Compendium: Zandalar Tribe
- ^ http://us.battle.net/wow/en/zone/zulgurub/
- ^ Zul'Farrak Zombie
- ^ Mummified Troll Remains
- ^ Reanimated Drakkari Tribesman
- ^ Shadows of the Loa
- ^ Troll lodge concept art, troll lumber mill
- ^ Blood of the Highborne
- ^ Troll Headhunter (Warcraft III)
- ^ The More, the Scarier
- ^ "Eternity's End: The Druids Arise", Warcraft III. Blizzard Entertainment. Dark Forest Troll Hut.
- ^ World of Warcraft: Chronicle Volume 1, pg. 93
- ^ World of Warcraft: Chronicle Volume 1, pg. 77
- ^ Troll Compendium: Dark Trolls
- ^ The Waking World and the Well of Eternity
- ^ World of Warcraft: Chronicle Volume 1, pg. 73, 74
- ^ World of Warcraft: Chronicle Volume 1, pg. 76
- ^ Troll Compendium: Ice Trolls
- ^ Troll Compendium: Ice Troll Tribes
- ^ Troll Compendium: Gurubashi Tribe
- ^ Troll Compendium: Sand Trolls
- ^ Troll Compendium: Sand Troll Tribes
- ^ Dave Kosak on Twitter: Zandalari model in 5.2 is how Blizzard had always envisioned them.
- ^ The Last Guardian, pg. 10, 31-32, 98-103, 107, 162, 174
- ^ Troll Compendium
- ^ Lands of Mystery, pg. 81 - 83
- ^ Alliance Player's Guide, pg. 179
- ^ a b Monster Guide, 138
- ^ Lands of Mystery, pg. 81
- ^ Warcraft III: Reign of Chaos Demo - Chapter 5: Countdown to Extinction OPTIONAL QUEST Island Trolls; Countdown to Extinction
- ^ Day of the Dragon, pg. 254
- ^ Ice troll#Gallery
- ^ World of Warcraft at BlizzCon 2017
- ^ The Sundering, pg. 67
- ^ File:Forest troll.jpg
- ^ Nebu 2018-04-24. Life at Blizzard: Behold the Headhunter Skull!. Blizzard Entertainment. Retrieved on 2018-04-28.